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After being rebuilt, it was again severely damaged by the French Army in 1689 during the Nine Years' War.After the rebuilding of Mannheim that began in 1698, the capital of the Electorate of the Palatinate was moved from Heidelberg to Mannheim in 1720 when Karl III Philip, Elector Palatine began construction of Mannheim Palace and the Jesuit Church; they were completed in 1760.

Mannheim is unusual among German cities in that its streets and avenues are laid out in a grid pattern, leading to its nickname "die Quadratestadt" ("The City of Squares").The eighteenth century Mannheim Palace, former home of the Prince-elector of the Palatinate, now houses the University of Mannheim.During the eighteenth century, Mannheim was the home of the "Mannheim School" of classical music composers.Mannheim was said to have one of the best court orchestras in Europe under the leadership of the conductor Carlo Grua.The royal court of the Palatinate left Mannheim in 1778.

Two decades later, in 1802, Mannheim was removed from the Palatinate and given to the Grand Duchy of Baden.The company's main competitor was the Zeppelin works.When World War I broke out in 1914, Mannheim's industrial plants played a key role in Germany's war economy.The climate crisis of 1816-17 caused famine and the death of many horses in Mannheim. Infrastructure improvements included the establishment of Rhine Harbour in 1828 and construction of the first Baden railway, which opened from Mannheim to Heidelberg in 1840.Influenced by the economic rise of the middle class, another golden age of Mannheim gradually began.From this dye factory, BASF has developed into the largest chemical company in the world.